Money: Concept, origination, jobs
First topic: the emergence of money and evolution
The world has witnessed successive periods, which evolved money machine, and that was the result of several stages, over the global Bhaalaguetsad. The global economy has passed stage of self-sufficiency, and then Bmrahlhalmqaydh, and finally the stage of the cash economy. We will address in this research both Hzhalemrahal on alone.
Alansanhyate began on earth, relying on his nature to get his needs and the needs of his family Altaaaulha. Human and saw the first form of cooperation which prisoners cooperation.
Small Bdotalosrh expands and takes the form of the tribe. The demands were simple and limited life, Zlkkant tribe consume what is produced by the few that want to satisfy their needs.
Second: Barter stage
With increasing human needs and diversity of goods produced, Oolmerhalh stages of barter appeared a specialty. By increasing product diversity, began appearance Altaanottksam work as a means to satisfy their desires. This led to the emergence of the principle of specialization Mieladuar and responsibilities according to the principle of efficiency of each member of the community and its capabilities.
Thus Asttaekl individual to commute what exceeds the needs of goods, specializes in the production of other goods needed, and others specialize in production.
Thus, a person knows the exchange of products or Asmybnzam "barter" process. Over time, the disadvantages of this system emerged. Was on all those who wish Faatmam exchange process that is looking for a person who desires correspond with him until Amlahalmqaydh, which takes some time. Showed the first problem facing the system represented in Admamkan desires dealers agree, and the difficulty of achieving the idea of savings as a result of exposure to many Mnalesla damage over time. In addition, faced a difficult retail barter system Bedasala. Just as there are a number of types of goods can be broken down into small amounts without depreciated, such as wheat, fruits, oils, there was another number of goods that are difficult but Isthiltdzitha like animals and homes of. All these factors have led naturally to the lack Rgbhalmtaaji in the use of this system and the search for his replacement.
Third: Mrahlhalaguetsad cash
After the human suffering of the barter system, he began looking for a necessary Madhnafh whereby the exchange of goods and services, and the estimated values and the things Ashellbha dealing, money was the solution that people found it a haven from the disadvantages of barter system. The money passed several stages until they reached the image that it is now.
The following are we review the evolution of money
1. commodity money
The first form Mnachkal money in the form of goods appeared acceptable to use human long as a mediator in Amlahaltpadl. I have used the human species innumerable goods as a mediator of value and measure them, the Greeks use cattle as money, and dating people of Ceylon on the use of elephants as money, and the Indians used tobacco, while the money the people of China are knives.
With the increasing size of deals, and Petkraraltjarb, traders discovered that the metals are the best broker to make the exchange process, including Mnhat being the strongest to survive, as indivisible and composition and size Alchuklalmtalobin.
The human preferred use of gold and silver from the rest of the metals Ospappalatah:
• the general acceptance that befell both gold and silver as a symbol of Theraalrha between states, in addition to the enjoyment of glitter attract attention, leading to Cioaastkhaddamanma in the jewelry industry.
• Easy to load and transport.
• Easy discrimination Noeithmaosthalh falsified.
• durability and non-corrosive.
• relatively value stability.
• susceptibility to roads and easy configuration by weight and the desired shape and size.
• Alkablahlledjar without being damaged or rust or fire.
Thus prevailed money made Manalzhb and silver as a mediator in business dealings, and has become the gold coins as a bearer Aasalevid that a certain value added to the balance of the national wealth, or really gained Bagaymanevsha of people contributed to this wealth.
The Adam Smith came to emphasize this concept, he said, "The Pound Gold is a promissory note drawn to the area dealers certain amount of Alsaldharoria and luxury, and the increase that occurred in the person who received the pound is Analoxiae words that can be purchased in pounds, not the same pound of income."
Human remains Alzhbualvdh used for a wide period of history, knocked off the coins made of gold, silver Alyarh the global monetary system, until the early twentieth century.
All the European countries almost forbidding Jews Alachtgalbaltjarh, and the banking profession is limited at this time to retain cash deposits, in order to maintain them and save them from theft, in return for remuneration commensurate with the duration of the Alodaahompelgha. In addition to this profession, bankers was at the time working in Aqradalncod interest rate, taking mortgages as collateral for repayment.
With the increase in trade volume, Azdadtaludaúa at money-changers, who quickly discovered that the proportion of deposits remains have Besfahdaúma without asking. Where it caused them to take advantage of this money is used, in Amilitaqrad interest rate. Resulting in increased profits from trafficking in third party funds.
And Anyagry moneychangers money holders on the demand for the process of depositing their money they have, Tnazloaan wage requirement peer keeping money they have. Then, they grant from the Baidaancodhm have interest at an attractive price on these deposits in exchange for receipts based Abafbasaddarha. And increase people's confidence in these receipts, were exchanged in the market without Dharorhely exchange value of gold.
Perhaps the first attempt to issue paper money in the form Alhaddithalmarov we have, are those carried out by the Bank of Sweden in Stockholm (1656), when Osdersendat paper we represent it to the bearer, and negotiable and exchange Bmejrdtkadimha went to the bank.
The first forms of paper money appeared in the form of receipts Alnmtihalta later became the bearer bonds, and became traded from hand to hand without having Elytzaar.
Since these bonds represent our banks, so it was natural that Tkunmguetah by (100%) of the money-changers with gold coins. Bankers and continued in this position, to a time when I felt the monetary institutions that it can lend money without her Alhajhely Gold standard.
The lack of banks to cover their publications of gold bonds for cash, to the exposure of many of them to bankruptcy, cash in times of war and crisis, as a result of pressure golden Alyalodaúa high demand.
And a sense of the different governments Balotralaguetsada dangerous operations monetary issuance, the legislature in many countries Baksramlah version on one bank is subject to the supervision of the government, or AMA Bank Antrzaalmmloc government.
Thus began the emergence of a new broker of exchange, represented in Oracabannknut commonly used as an alternative metal for money. It was money Alourguihalta issued in the early eighteenth century, carrying on her back where the phrase Alheiihalmusdrh her undertakes to fulfill the true value of the cash and convert the nominal value of gold Andaltalb.
This was characterized by steady cash value to the possibility of replacing the gold in Oaoukt, as well as to avoid the loss of coins and erosion as a result of circulation and re-Skhausiaghtha.
With the beginning of the twentieth century, economic conditions deteriorated for many Dolalm, and there were many wars and lack of gold cover, forcing monetary authorities to stop Astaadadhabv nominal value of fiat money equivalent of gold.
Came the credit money to end the relevant final between precious Alncodoualemaadn. He gave these related outages great flexibility to display.
The Hzhalmarwna or freedom in version double-edged sword, as it can increase Anqashelmusbandh version or the needs of trade, that is going too far in version Mujatemttalah lead to inflation and rising prices, leading to an increase in fake login Alnkadihllavrad. To require the issuance of fiat money severe government control process, as well as Anely control monetary institutions.
Credit money is divided into legal and Ncodaútmanah money:
A. Legal money
Legal Money is money Alosasahalmasrh. And was named the "legal money" because it derives its strength from the force of law and its general acceptance Qpolalavrad Due to the monopoly of the central bank released right.
And represent Hzhalncod our state toward the private sector, it is imperative on the central bank Ctfazbosol equal in value to the value of money is issued, and called these assets Balguetaoualnkadi.
And legal money is divided into:
Paper money Anorac mandatory cash issued by the Central Bank and the phrase be issued based on the rules and laws governing legislative and Tnohaalsultat. These rules you specify quantity issued them.
Help money usually take the form of metal coins or, in some cases, money and paper with Viatsgarh, the aim of the issuance D markets currencies to help the process of exchange.
B. Deposit money
The cash deposits in amounts deposited in banks in Al_husabatagaria and be payable on demand and can be transferred from one individual to another Boisthalhikat.
And the check is directed by the applicant (ie the creditor) to the bank (ie the debtor) to Kiadf to the order of the owner of the debt, or to the order of another person or to bearer, a certain amount of money.
Thus, we find that the deposit money with no tangible physical entity, as they exist in Sourhhsab books of banks. The money accounts in banks rather than checks that represent Salhthoil for this money.
Differ cash deposits for legal money in it money Msgelaliha owner name and needed to transfer of ownership change this name, so unlike Alncodaleghanonah which applies the legal principle "title to the property acquisition", which means Onhaúzha is the owner and the transfer of ownership is to be traded and transmission possession from one person to another.
Thus, we find that the types of money has gradually diversified development of economic systems and Drjhnmoha, making money from important economic variables that affect and become Ttatrabgerha of other variables which include production, employment and income and Alasthlakowalastosmar.
The second topic: the functions of money and its importance
Sbakon reminded us that money came to replace Mtlavih disadvantages of barter system. The Ohmahalncod it in the best medium of exchange, as well as they perform many functions, Fahimaaar deferred payments and a measure of value and a repository of wealth.
First: Anakodouxat exchange
The cash consideration for the exchange as a mediator, would imply acceptance of any Vyalsouk dealers have to be accepted by the general acceptance of all individuals. Public acceptance of Ncodettalb high degree of confidence in the unity of the value of money, and the unit value of money, to Aigsd by monetary value, as it is fixed and does not change, it represents the value of the purchasing power of money Alhakiqihalta reflect her. And the purchasing power of money is an amount that can Asalawalkhaddmat exchange in the market process is conducted by ECU and Tertbtalncod inversely correlated with the general level of prices, Amellosar The lower level, the real value of money and vice versa rose.
Thus Amellncod acceptance of dealers in the market on the degree of confidence in the value associated with, the higher the price Almistoyam impaired and shaken the confidence of clients and Aekssahih.
Second, a measure of the value of money
Besides being Sitalltpadl, represent coins and unit of measure, whereupon the units of money measured values of goods and Alkhaddmatalmokhtlfah, and the proportion of the value of each good or service to other goods and services, and vary Alncodkouhdh measuring about a meter and kilogram and per ton, and other units of measurement in Onhalist fixed value, drops and rises down the general price level and a height as Sbakon mentioned. The money as a measure of the value of the utmost importance as it is used to measure Therouattalomm and budgets of states and corporate assets and liabilities, and other uses Alokhryalosasah to the states economy. And vary the function of money as a measure of value for her role Kosatalltpadl, if the shoe manufacturer to produce the shoe at a price of ten pounds so it Kdastaml money as a measure of value, but if he sold shoes in exchange for Ashrhgnihat so it has been used as an intermediary for the exchange of money.
Third: Alncodmistoda value
There are many ways in which human used to maintain Alytherute over time, we find that he has used animals, minerals and goods and financial Alakaratwalawrac and other ways that will not live up to the rank of money as a store of Qamalospab several, if we look at the animals and goods are susceptible to damage or destruction Bmrorelzimn, and for metals, the such as stainless steel and eroded over time. As for Maadnalnafish and securities, real estate and other means of wealth preservation that do not Ttatherbmror time, the money is still characterized by it in full liquidity.
He described the full liquidity Alncodbonha means that you can dispose of them at any time, to buy anything Manalosoaq or to settle any commitment, but if kept anyone his fortune in another image Giralncod, it should converts them into cash first, so that he can fill the needs Althiergbha.
Fourth: the money standard of deferred payment
Alncodozivtha also performed as a measure of current values, they are used as a benchmark for future values, whereupon Alncodbkies debt transactions and other deferred payments specified amount of monetary units, if the person contracted with another to supply a certain quantity of goods in exchange for a fixed amount Manalncod, or free person of another imminent fixed amount for the purchase of an asset, or the Dolahibasaddar government bonds specified nominal value in exchange for a fixed amount represents Agaymaalhalah of the bond, the money in all previous cases have been used to measure Almedfoatalmagelh as already mentioned in the function of money as a measure of value, the role of money Kmaearlldf deferred , building on the presence of trust between individuals in the real value of Ncodostaqrarha stability, because of fluctuations in the real value of money, both to appreciate Oalankhvad, will reduce its role as a measure of current values and perhaps it unsuitable Kouhdhlkies deferred payments.
It is noted that each state a national monetary unit, in the case of transactions between different countries and transactions between members of different countries as well, Vanalhsol the monetary unit and one that satisfies all the dealers, it is difficult to achieve without the presence of an international Nzamnkadi working on the settlement of obligations between states and their members andorganize transactions national monetary units of different .